History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon. It is also a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies. Therefore, we need to know what events occurred in history to create a better today for all of us. Now let us read more about the events that happened on December 15 in history:
1775 – The Bill of Rights ratified in Congress
The United States of America ratified the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution on December 15, 1791. According to the bill, it confirmed the fundamental rights of its citizens. The First Amendment guarantees freedom of religion, speech, and the press. It also confirmed the rights of peaceful assembly and petition.
The Bill of Rights ratified in Congress draws influence and inspiration from the Magna Carta (1215), the English Bill of Rights (1689), and many other efforts in England and America. However, it was drawn to expand fundamental rights. Additionally, George Mason’s Virginia Declaration of Rights formed the basis of the amendments that comprise the Bill of Rights.
1862 – Nathan Bedford Forrest crosses the Tennessee River at Clifton
Confederate Brigadier General Nathan Bedford Forrest conducted a raid on Forrest’s Expedition into West Tennessee. It was conducted from December 1862 to January 1863, during the American Civil War. Forrest led an expedition of 1,800 to 2,500 men into Union-held West Tennessee which disrupted the supply lines of Major General Ulysses S. Grant. However, the latter was campaigning south along the Mississippi River toward Vicksburg.
On December 15, 1862, Forrest’s command successfully forded the river and the artillery. Still, the horses, mules, and men swam across the river in a cold pelting rain without tents or other shelters.
1978 – The U.S. recognizes China
On December 15, 1978, President of the United States of America, Jimmy Carter announced that the United States would formally recognize the communist People’s Republic of China. It also focused on severing its diplomatic relations with Taiwan. Carter set January 1, 1979, as the effective date of the change.
However, in April 1979, the lawmakers passed the Taiwan Relations Act. It gave the breakaway island the same status as any other nation recognized by the United States. It also stated that arms sales would continue to the Nationalist government. In place of the U.S. Embassy in Taiwan, an “unofficial” representative, called the American Institute in Taiwan, continued to serve U.S. interests there.
1933 – Twenty-first Amendment to U.S. Constitution came into effect
On December 15. 1933, the Twenty-first Amendment to the Constitution of the United States that officially repealed federal prohibition came into effect. Meanwhile, the government enacted it through the Eighteenth Amendment, adopted in 1919.
Congress proposed the Twenty-first Amendment to the U.S. that aimed at rescinding prohibition. However, in April Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Cullen-Harrison Act, which amended the prohibition-based Volstead Act. Although, Congress amended it to permit the manufacturing and sale of various low-alcohol beer and wines around the states. However, ratification of the amendment was completed on December 15, 1933.
Meanwhile, the Twenty-first Amendment also granted states greater leeway in regulating alcohol within and across their borders. Transportation of alcohol was regulated by the states as long as they did not violate the commerce clause of the Constitution.
2001 – The Leaning Tower of Pisa reopened in Pisa, Italy
The Leaning Tower of Pisa is a famous monument of Italy and is known for the settling of its foundations. The settling caused it to lean 5.5 degrees (about 15 feet [4.5 meters]) from the perpendicular in the 20th century. Extensive work subsequently came into effect to straighten the tower reducing its lean-to less than 4.0 degrees.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa started leaning during construction in the late 12th century, due to soft ground that could not support the weight of the tower. However, it got worsened through the completion of construction in the 14th century. After ten years of corrective reconstruction and stabilization efforts, on December 15, 2001, the tower was reopened for the public in Italy. It was also declared stable for at least another 300 years. In total, architects removed 70 metric tons (77 short tons) of soil.
Reference Source: historynet.com