Ceaser A. Cruz had once said, “Art should comfort the disturbed and disturb the comfortable”. The meaning of these words still holds prevalence in society. Throughout the world, there have been numerous art movements. Indeed, they inspired the architects too. The lines between art and architecture appear blurred sometimes. Often, they overlap one another. Thus, here are few architectural styles inspired by art movements:
Renaissance art movement flourished in Italy throughout the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. Although the Renaissance movement happened all over Europe. It became dominant in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Italy. The term “Renaissance” is a French word, meaning “Re-birth”. In the field of art, Renaissance induced new techniques. This included the realistic painting of human figures with oil. Like greater attention to the details, became widely popular. Motivated by all the art developments, the architects discovered a harmony between human proportions and building structures.
A major characteristic feature of the architectural style is the immense emphasis on symmetry, proportion, and regularity of parts. This included an orderly pattern of the columns, arches, domes, etc. Major work includes St Peter’s Basilica in Italy. It is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture. The area covered is vast. The length of St Peters is 720 feet while the width is 490 feet. The height measures up to 448 feet. Likewise, the dome of St. Peter’s is the tallest one in the world. It dominates the skyline of the city. Also, the dome is built on four pendentives i.e. the triangular part of a spherical surface. This included the construction of massive piers. Interior decoration comprises the use of marbles and sculptures. Certainly, Renaissance sculptures like Michelangelo’s Pieta. The architecture includes Roman inscriptions, each of which 4.6 feet in height. It is the iconic excellence of the structure, that makes it well-known.
Baroque is the way of art, sculpture, and architecture that flourished in Europe in the late sixteenth century. The Baroque form of art adopted the features of grandeur, rich color contrast, movements, and vitality. Hence, this movement might be the perfect instance where art and architecture merged. Inspired by the paintings and other artworks, the architects constructed sites in a manner exhibiting grandeur. As a result, it involved the use of complex shapes often oval along with interpenetration of spaces. Other influential characteristics of art involved the use of bright colors and illusionary along with painted ceilings. The use of Solomonic columns heightened the sense of motion. These illuminations consisted of extreme contrasts of light and darkness. The Palace of Versailles is the perfect example of the Baroque style.
The Palace of Versailles represents the French Baroque style. It included twisted columns, domes at a great height, and complex shapes. These twisted columns bring out the sense of motion i.e. characteristic of Baroque. The interior consisted of heavy marble as well as plastered molding. The entire palace comprises seven hundred rooms, fancy gardens, and grand hallways. Hall of Mirrors and the Grande Canal are a few of the notable works in the palace. The place continues to remain a major landmark of French history and architecture.
Art Nouveau emerged in the nineteenth and twentieth century. It was the form of art and architecture adopted on an international level. One of the major aims of this movement was to break down the barrier between fine arts (painting and sculpture) and applied arts (Ceramic art and architecture). Thus, major characteristics involved the use of intricate detailing of asymmetrical lines drawn from the pattern of flowers. Use of patterns based on the structure of butterflies and dragonflies inspired by Japanese art. There are a characteristic curve and consistent use of lines and asymmetrical shapes. The colors applied in both paintings and architectural surfaces are sober.
Casa Batlló in Barcelona is a well-known jewel of art nouveau. The courtyard is decorated with ceramic tiles. Three colors are displayed. Dark blue at the top, lighter shade towards the middle. Ultimately leading to white at the bottom. The roofline of the structure is similar to a dragon’s side. This has a piercing with a marble cross. Besides, there are four sets of chimneys. The colors are very subtle and it involves the use of ceramic elements. Hence, exhibiting a classic form of art nouveau.
Art Deco was a movement in decorative arts and architecture that took place in the twentieth century. This style of art was first exhibited at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes. So, this is where the term “Art Deco” originated from. The characteristics include simple shapes, geometric ornaments along with the repetition of elements. The style was relatively simple and modern. The Empire State Building is a classic example of architecture inspired by art deco.
The Empire State Building is located in Manhattan, New York. It is a skyscraper with 102 stories. The building has symmetrical massing i.e. the perception of the general shape of a building. While the front exterior is covered with limestone panels.
Modern-day materials typical of Art Deco are used in this structure too. For instance, the use of granite, stainless steel, and aluminum. Consequently, the main entrance comprises three sets of metal doors. The entire building has 6,514 windows. Meanwhile, it is a major center of tourist attraction.
Cubism was an art movement in the early twentieth century that revolutionized painting and sculpture. Besides, it had a major impact on architecture. Certainly, it was the most influential art movement of the twentieth century. Artists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque pioneered this movement. Hence, the style included a flat, two-dimensional surface of the picture plane. The paintings involved right-angled, straight-line construction. The architectural aspect of cubism encouraged through this involved great use of simple geometric shapes. Juxtaposed without any illusions of classical elements. Along with these features, there was a major hint of modernity with an increase of glass in the structures. An interesting aspect is a fact that the cubist architects constructed buildings and also designed the furniture. For example, the House of Black Madonna in the Czech Republic.
This is a famous cubist structure. It is in use as the Czech Museum of Cubism. With the main structure, there is Grand Café Orient on the first floor. The interior included heavy wrought iron chandeliers. As well as built-in furniture and a bar counter of oak wood. Also, the walls in the interior had an elusive painting of geometric patterns. Thus, cubist architecture was unique and well-known. Most importantly, it continues to be a classic form of art and architecture.
Thus, to conclude art and architecture are co-related. Above all, every art movement left a mark on the architectural designs of that era. Architects not only get inspired but also look around the artworks and nature to get ideas. Art has served as a muse of the structures constructed in various places. Therefore, these reflected the culture and designs well-known in the past centuries. The creators continue to receive admiration for their craft. Hence, one can say that the various movements not only transformed art but also architecture.
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