On January 23, we bring you some events of the past. From first monkey clone to ban on aerosol, science has come a long way. Today we bring you major achievements of Elizabeth Blackwell, the first female medical degree holder. Also, learn how the invention of Morse code led to the most significant changes in United States history.
1571- Queen Elizabeth I opens Royal Exchange
The wealthy trader Sir Thomas Gresham is regarded as the father of English Banking. He established the first centre for trading stocks in London. Queen Elizabeth I, grants it an official designation and beer licence, formally opens the Royal Exchange. Unfortunately, in the Great Fire of London, the fire demolished original Royal Exchange. In 1669, Edward Jerman built a second site in a baroque style. The Royal Exchange is still flourishing with dealers and brokers.
1845- Uniform US election day authorized
A technical transition that specifically predicted an unalterable future for rapid contact around the country was an invention of the Morse telecom. Congress sponsored it in 1843 and successfully tested in 1844. The first Tuesday in November is now Voting Day in the United States to avoid information from one nation from affecting the results of presidential elections in a third one.
1849- The first woman to earn a medical degree
Blackwell’s medical interests arose after a friend got ill and remarked that if a female doctor had looked after her, she would not be in too much suffering. Soon, Blackwell applied to medical schools. However, she instantly endures the disadvantage of her sex due to prejudice against women. But, the male students voted for the entry of Blackwell to it at Geneva Medical College. Therefore, on January 23, Blackwell became the first female Physician in the United States.
1912- The International Opium Convention
As a key aspect of international law, the Opium Convention of 1912 officially set down narcotic restraints. It addressed the question of trade and the use of opium. It limits its use to medical purposes. In 1915 the Conference became successful. Since then, there have been a number of other conferences, protocols and negotiations.
1978- Sweden bans aerosol sprays
Scientist defines aerosols as ultrafine, medium, or coarse substance. On the other hand, meteorologists, regulatory agencies, call them particles. In the media, people usually know aerosol as smoke, ash and soot. The continued exposure of these pollutants could degrade the ozone layer. Thus, Sweden took severe precautions after banning aerosol sprays on January 23.
1997- Madeleine Albright becomes U.S. secretary
At the period of her nomination, Albright was the first woman State Secretary and the top-ranking female in the US government’s history. But, she was not a part of nuclear evacuation planning as she was not a natural citizen. During her service, Albright shaped American foreign policy for Bosnia, Herzegovina and the Middle East. In 1998, National Hall of Fame for Women incorporated Albright’s name.
2018- Chinese researchers cloned two monkeys
Born in a laboratory in China, Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua were similar long-tailed macaque monkeys. Researchers also suggest that genetically similar species of monkeys are beneficial for human diseases studies. However, the experiment raises ethical issues by closer interactions between the environment and human cloning, critics argued. Monkey diseases, which include some tumours, metabolic and immune disorders, are a valuable model to research genetic diseases.