Historically, women in the workplace as compared to males are unequally treated. Although the number of women entering the profession has been increasing globally. There remain major differences in many aspects of work, from salaries to promotion. Originally, society expected women to be stay-at-home wives and moms who would take care of the home while men worked. Women were unable to attend university for a long period. Thus, preventing them from getting an education and professional life. As society has progressed, women, on the other hand, got equal access to universities. Despite this, women’s unemployment in the United States has been rising drastically for many years. Minnesota has the greatest percentage of women engaging in the civilian labor force in 2017.
Women labor force participation rates.
For a variety of reasons, women work part-time. The overwhelming majority of persons who work part-time do so of their own accord. However, their choices are usually limited by reasons such as their children’s school hours and expensive child-care expenditures. Part-time work is, however, involuntary for some women. In 2013, around one in every five women who normally worked part-time stated they did so because they could not find full-time work or because their hours at work were temporarily decreased.
Understandably, women are approximately twice as likely as men to work part-time. Working part-time reduces the likelihood of receiving benefits such as paid vacation days, paid family or medical leave, paid sick days, health insurance, or company contributions to retirement savings accounts. For instance, The states with the highest percentages of employed women who work part-time are Utah (40.2%), Oregon (37.1%), and Rhode Island (36.5%).
Women’s unemployment rates in the United States differ significantly depending on race and ethnicity. According to initial results, black women had the highest unemployment rate of 10.5% among women in 2014. Thus, followed by Hispanic women (8.2%), white women (5.2%), and Asian women (5.2%). And 4.6% of data are not available for Native American women. Women’s unemployment rates were lower than men’s in every racial and ethnic group except Hispanics.
Unemployment is also high among single mothers and young women. In 2013, single mothers with children under the age of 18 were more than twice as likely as married mothers with an unemployed partner. According to preliminary 2014 data, the nation’s youngest female workers (ages 16–19) had a 17.7% jobless rate. Those aged 20–24 fared better but still had a significant unemployment rate. Many young women have low or no prior professional experience, as well as a lack of higher school credentials.
Immigrant Women’s Employment and Earnings
In the United States, around 21 million female immigrants live. Accounting for slightly over 13% of the female population. Immigrant women come from all over the world, with Mexico (25.6%), the Philippines (5.3%), China (4.7%), and India (4.7%) having the highest percentages (4.6 percent). Immigrant women contribute significantly to local communities, the economy, and society in their various roles as students, professionals, and other workers, wives, parents, and caregivers.
Overall, immigrant women are less likely than native-born women to work in management or professional positions. Service occupations have a disproportionately high number of immigrant women. Around, 32.5% of immigrant women work in these occupations. Immigrant women are approximately twice as likely as native-born women to work in manufacturing, transportation, and material moving industries.
Women with Disabilities- Employment and Earnings
Approximately 2.6 million women in the work sector, aged 16 and up, have disabilities such as cognitive, mobility, visual, hearing, and self-care or independent living issues. They account for 3.6 percent of all working women. In 2013, 17.1% of women aged 16 and older with disabilities participated in the labor force.
Women with disabilities have a tougher time finding work than other women. Women with disabilities had a 13.5% unemployment rate in 2013. So, women with disabilities are roughly as likely as other women to work in sales and office jobs. And somewhat more likely to work in service jobs. Management, professional, and related occupations are less likely to employ them. Women with impairments aged 16 and older who work full-time, year-round earn less than women without disabilities.
The wage discrepancy.
The income gap between men and women continues to be a concern for women today. But it has improved in recent years. Despite having the same degree of education and experience as men, women earn less for doing the same work as men. The finance and insurance industry was one of the industries. And had the greatest pay difference between men and women in the United States. Women’s employment rates in the United States have remained relatively stable since 1990. In 1990, 54.3% of women worked. And by 2020, that number had dropped to 51.5%. It did, however, reach a peak of 57.5% in 2000. Also read: Managining menstrual week professionally.