December 31, the final day of the year 2020. While many unexpected things happened this year, this year deserves a final goodbye. Whether you are still under lockdown or living the new normal, this year does make an unforgettable place in our heart. However, when you look back in history, this was not the only time when exceptional events happened. From major breakthroughs to important decisions, this day makes start of some of the most important events in World history.
1600- East India Company establishes
Royal Charter incorporated English East India Company on December 31. The company started as a trading body in India. By the end of the nineteenth century, it also acted as an agent of British Imperialism. It increased participation of English merchants in East Indian spice trade. After acquiring Bengal in 1757, East India Company intervened in Indian Politics. The Regulating Act and the India Act resulted in the formation of the British Government. Transfer of rules to British Crown occurred at the end of 1858. India’s First War Of Independence resulted in final colonisation. In the year 1947, India was independent of British rule.
1744- Discovery of Earth’s nutation motion
Nutation motion, in simple words, is the spin of the earth like a wobble. James Bradley, an English astronomer, discovered in 1744. He observed a slight shift in the position of stars. Therefore, he chose the Gamma Draconis star and observed its position. Star shifted one second of arc in three days. An idea that stuck to him while sailing a boat. The wind vane kept changing its position on the mast. While boat and wind both had fixed direction, it did not keep wind vane in one direction. Similarly, the earth’s rotation around the sun was fixed and so were the stars. The only reason the star changed its direction was due to nutation motion.
1841- Alabama, first state, issues Dental surgeon license
The practice of Dentistry exist hundreds of year before 1841. In the US, the first dental college opened in Baltimore. However, Alabama issues the first dental license. Surprisingly, the practice of oral health was not popular in the early years. the response of the general public towards the dentist was not good. Also, a career as a dentist was often mocked. It wasn’t until the end of world war two when oral health became a priority. Soldiers who return from war brought dental hygiene practices. By the end of 2017. There are seventy dentists per million in America.
1857- Ottawa becomes Capital of Canada
According to the historian, the Queen’s decision surpised the general public. When Queen Victoria issued a royal decree to make Ottawa the capital of Canada, people were skeptical. However, she had a good reason to do so. Great Britain was in War with America in 1857. Ottawa was far away from American borders. Since woods surrounded Ottawa, it was difficult target. One of the key aspects that protected it during the war. Also, it was near Ontario and Quebec. English and French speakers lived in these two cities.
1935- Monopoly game patented
Lizzie Magie created Monopoly in an attempt to explain Single tax system theory. Its actual name was The Landlord’s Game It educated people showing cons of land monopoly. In 1904, she received a patent. Later, Parker Brother’s bought the rights to the Monopoly. They patented this game on December 31, 1935. The first version of the game was based on Atlantic City, New Jersey. Later this game had many variants. The most expensive version is an eighteen-carat gold game. It is estimated for two million dollars.
1997- Microsoft acquires Hotmail
Jack Smith and Sabeer Bhatia launched HoTMaiL in 1996. By the end of 1997, Hotmail had nine million users. Hotmail and Rocketmail( later Yahoo! Mail) were the first two companies to allow free email services. While Microsoft wanted to introduce email services in MSN, creating a new web-mail service was not easy. So, they bought Hotmail for four hundred fifty million dollars. By the end of July 2012, Hotmail was re-launched as Outlook.com.