Those living organisms that require a host to replicate are called viruses. They are responsible for causing diseases such as coronavirus, chickenpox, ebola, herpes virus, flu, AIDS, measles, etc.
Viruses have either RNA or DNA as genetic material covered and protected by protein coat- capsid. Viruses depend on the host to replicate as they lack ribosomes required for the production of protein. They can be helical, envelop-shaped, or icosahedral in shape. Host-dependent organisms can transmit from one person to another through fluids. Blood, saliva exchange through kissing, sneezing, or coughing, unprotected sexual contact, contaminated food and water, and insects can transmit viruses.
Types of virus and their prevention
Measures to prevent Coronavirus
The newest discovery of the infectious disease coronavirus is a result of the virus. It is transmitted through the coughing and sneezing of an infected person. It causes high fever, body aches, loss of taste and smell, dry cough, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and discoloration of the skin of toes and fingers. Here’s a list of measures that prove to be effective to fight coronavirus.
- Cleaning hands using soap and water at regular intervals for 3 to 4 hours help to prevent the infection. It should be kept in mind that the back of the hands, fingertips, and nails are perfectly cleaned.
- For killing coronavirus, sanitizers have been extremely helpful. While traveling, before eating, and after having physical contact with infected individuals, one must sanitize their hands.
- Practicing social distancing is highly essential to prevent the infection of coronavirus. During the outbreak of the newly-discovered virus, various countries announced strict lockdown measures to control human contact.
- Wearing face masks has proved to be productive to prevent the spread of coronavirus. Along with this, it is essential to cover the mouth while coughing or sneezing.
- If a person uses any public facility such as a restroom or transport, one must avoid touching the surfaces, use hand sanitizers, and maintain social distance.
Measures to prevent Herpes Virus
Herpes simplex virus causes genital problems known as Herpes. There are two types of Herpes simplex virus namely HSV 1 and HSV 2 causing oral and genital herpes respectively. The symptoms of herpes include itching, redness, blister formation inflammation, and burning near the oral cavity and genitals. It also causes pain, swelling in lymph nodes, unexplained tiredness, and fever. The following tips can be effective to prevent herpes.
- Avoiding sexual contact with the infected person or person having similar symptoms can help in preventing the spread of the herpes virus.
- Using barrier protection such as condoms, dental dams, or cervical caps during oral, vaginal, or anal coitus can help to prevent herpes.
- If a person has herpes, he/she should not have intercourse even with protective condoms as they may not cover all the parts with infection.
- Avoid touching the herpes sores unnecessarily and always wash your hands properly after touching. It may amplify the infection rate to other parts.
- Avoid kissing especially pregnant women and babies and refrain from oral sex if oral sores are present.
Measures to prevent Ebola Virus
Ebola virus is a rare viral infection that causes extreme pain in muscles and joints, high fever, sore throat, weakness, and stomach pain. Infected individuals also suffer from bloody diarrhea and vomiting. For preventing Ebola, the following measures have proved to be effective.
- Avoid contact of body fluids with infected people such as blood, breast milk, vomit, sweat, amniotic fluid, vaginal fluids, feces, and saliva.
- Use of personal items of the person with infection, such as needles, towels, and equipment should be avoided.
- Having contact with bats, monkeys, chimpanzees, and other non-human primates should be strictly avoided in infected countries.
Measures to prevent Influenza Virus
Influenza virus is responsible for causing flu affecting the respiratory passage of individuals. Influenza virus causes high fever, runny nose, cough, tiredness, body aches, vomiting, and diarrhea. Following measures are important to prevent the spread of the flu. It affects the nose, throat, and lungs of the respiratory passage adversely.
- Immunization can be a great way to prevent flu. Vaccinations such as flu shots are available that help in its prevention.
- Taking supplements to strengthen the immune system can also help to prevent flu. Maintaining a balanced diet rich in essential minerals and vitamins is predominantly essential to avoid the harmful effects of flu.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, and decongestants prove to be effective for treating the Influenza virus.
Instead of cells, viruses have protein coats surrounding their genetic material. They acquire energy and generate multiple self copies using the host’s body. Viruses need vectors to transmit from one individual to another. Insects and body fluids such as blood, saliva, semen, or breast milk facilitate the transition of viruses. It is essential to avoid sexual contact, oral exposure, and sharing of personal items if an individual has a viral infection.