It has been 74 years since independence. There has been a vast change in all the sectors present in India. The journey of India and in transformation has set up a milestone which enabled it to achieve its progress and success throughout. As India completes 74 glorious years as an independent nation, let us have a look at the changes and reforms till date.
Here are different fields and the changes that occurred respectively:
Agriculture and allied activities:
Agriculture is and always will be the most important sector that primarily provides livelihood to most of the population in India. Tremendous growth and uplift has been witnessed in this field. Immediately after independence, the agricultural productivity was very low. Everything was dependent on natural resources and no technology was evolved. It gained speedy growth with the introduction of the Green Revolution in India. Since then, India has been one of the major hubs of production of wheat and rice and leader in milk production. Now all the objects used by the farmers for farming are mainly based on technology.
The real gross value added by the agriculture, forestry, and allied sectors went up from around Rs. 1,502 billion in 1950-51 to around Rs. 22,263 billion as per the 2011-12 calculations.
The net production of food grains in India increased from around 48 million tonnes during the 50s to a massive 241 million tonnes during 2017.
We can conclude that there has been an emerging growth in the field of agriculture with the help of advanced technology used soil fertilization techniques.
Immediately after independence, there were many Indian industries in the market. As time moved by, new Indian industries emerged. The policy of 1991 stood up to set the base for real growth in industries and markets. This policy focused to expand the role of the private sector as well as maximization of profit in the economy. It opened the door for many Indian as well as International Industrialists to enter the Indian market thus enhancing the foreign investment and foreign reserves with the help of globalization. From automobile sectors to pharmacies and Telecommunications, India experienced broadening growth. The major boost was seen in the sector of Internet and Technology, with many new industries and startups coming up with the idea of E-commerce. Since then, India has been known for its IT sector.
Many new sectors and industries also came up which included online food deliveries to providing tourist facilities.
The infrastructure of India at the time of independence included railway stations and railway tracks as well as well-built roads. After independence, the structure expanded to various hotels, well-built highways, a good amount of electricity and water supplies. A good number of hospitals, small scale as well as big industries have been set up. The change in the transportation medium and warehouses ended up providing a huge help to the Industrialists as well as the consumers. This developing country is making sure that it gives the best infrastructure facilities to its countrymen.
The length of roads increased from around 0.4 million km during the 1950s to around 5.9 million km post-2016-17. Civil aviation has also witnessed immense growth, with the number of passengers increasing from only 10.74 million during 1980-81 to an estimated 345 million during 2018-19.
The total energy generated by the hydro, thermal, and nuclear sectors increased from only 5.1 billion KWH during 1950-51 to 1,303.5 billion KWH during 2017-18. India’s installed plant capacity went up from a mere 2.3 thousand MW during 1950-51 to 399 thousand MW as of 2017-18.
Along with this, there has been a huge growth in the educational field. A large number of educational institutions as well as schools are now set up so that a larger portion of the population gets educated.
Development in Human Development indicators
Literacy rates have increased significantly, from 18.3% during the 1950s to 52% during the 1990s to 73% during 2011. India’s population growth rate has been increased to 90% in 2017 – 18. When it comes to the poverty rate, it is observed by the World Bank that India halved its poverty rate since independence. It means that India has 924 females per 1000 males. In absolute terms, India has 48.04% female population compared to 51.96% male population.
Talking about other important parameters that affect India, it includes all the social barriers and social values we can say that there has been a huge Transition recorded. Discrimination on the basis of gender and cast has almost been finished as well as A significant fall of India crime rates have also been observed.
more and more people are shifting from rural areas to Urban in search of a job as well as a good educational platform. the standards of living of the people as well as the income and GDP of the country has been gradually increasing since years.
Therefore, with the picture portrayed by the data given above, we can conclude that India is on the journey in a rapid transformation from a developing country to a developed country with much-advanced technology, industries, facilities, infrastructure as well as other all-important paramount’s for becoming a leading country.