Gynecological health includes Obstetrics, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pregnancy, fertility problems, menstruation, and problems arising due to hormonal imbalances.
A doctor who specializes in the health of female genitals and organs is a gynecologist. American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists certifies and registers gynecologists. Obstetricians are doctors specializing in pregnancy and childbirth.
Here’s a list of problems or symptoms that need proper gynecologist attention and treatment.
- All types of cancers of the reproductive tracts, breasts, and pregnancy-related tumors such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, or endometrial cancer are treated by gynecologists.
- Women facing problems related to fertility, pregnancy, and menstruation.
- To deal with family planning issues, gynecologists and obstetricians play an important role in addressing the concerns of individuals related to sterilization, contraception, and termination of pregnancy.
- Gynecologists help in treating sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, etc.
- Women facing premalignant conditions such as cervical hyperplasia or endometrial hyperplasia are treated by gynecologists.
- All types of congenital abnormalities and emergency care related to gynecology are evaluated and treated by gynecologists.
- Gynecologists also play a massive role in addressing the sexual issues that relate to same-sex, bisexuality, and sexual dysfunction.
- Occasionally, gynecologists also address the issues of diabetes, osteoporosis, sexual abuse, hormonal disorders (thyroid disorders), cardiovascular diseases, and asthma.
Gynecological problems and issues
Endometriosis is a condition in which endometrial tissues grow outside the uterus affecting pelvic areas such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, and surrounding tissues. It causes excessive painful cramping, discomfort, pain in the pelvic area and vertebral column, urinary problems, pain during intercourse, and bleeding between periods.
This can lead to infertility, formation of ovarian cysts, scar formation, and intestinal and bladder complications. The condition is detected by pelvic exam, laparoscopy, biopsy, and imaging tests. The treatment is by various methods such as hormonal treatments, pain-relieving medications, surgical removal of unwanted tissue mass, and natural remedies (acupuncture, herbal medications, and counseling).
Abnormal vaginal bleeding relates to spotting, intermenstrual needling, or metrorrhagia. The condition may arise due to the unwanted growth of cells in the uterus or cervical canal. Vaginal dryness, hormonal imbalance, miscarriage, or extreme stress as well. The two hormones responsible for female sexual characteristics are estrogen and progesterone. Dysfunctional ovaries, birth control pills, and thyroid gland illness may lead to imbalances in these two hormones. Non-cancerous growth in the uterus, STDs, pelvic inflammatory diseases, and vaginal douching primarily associates with vaginal bleeding. Treatment for vaginal bleeding is the cause of the issue. Antibiotics or antifungal medications help in rectifying the condition.
Uterine fibroid is a state in which non-cancerous cells grow in the uterus leading to adverse conditions. The condition causes heavy menstrual bleeding, frequent urge to urinate, constipation, backaches, pelvic pressures, and longer menstrual periods. Uterine fibroid can be due to hormonal imbalances, an increase in the extracellular matrix, growth factors in the body, and genetic factors. Many types of research suggest limited medical knowledge to treat this. However, surgical removal of fibroid proves to be helpful in its treatment. Progestin IUD, hysterectomy, myomectomy, laparoscopy, and uterine artery embolization also proves to be effective.
Vaginal Yeast Infections
Yeast infections developing in the vagina and vaginal tissues are basically vaginal yeast infections. These infections are present due to the fungus Candida albicans leading to irritation and itching in the vagina and vulva of females. The condition causes vaginal discharge, vaginal pain, rashes and soreness in genitals, and vulvar inflammation, especially during intercourse and urination. Women taking antibiotics, having higher estrogen levels, diabetes, and weak immune system are more likely to catch vaginal yeast infections. Lactobacillus bacteria help to prevent the overgrowth of fungus causing yeast infection. Antifungal supplements are used to treat the condition which helps in killing and prevention fungi.
Many women may experience vaginal dryness due to hormonal imbalances. There is an alkaline moist layer surrounding the vagina facilitating sperm uptake and reducing friction during sex. Thinning of layer leads to vaginal dryness that causes inflammation of female genitals, bleeding after intercourse, urinary infections, pain during intercourse, and vaginal stinging. It may be due to breastfeeding, immune disorders, surgical removal of ovaries, childbirth, and rigorous exercises. Vaginal counter-lubricants are used to treat vaginal dryness that helps in moisturizing the area and reducing inflammation.
Prevention of gynecological problems
Here’s a list of several methods that will help in the prevention of gynecological problems.
- A healthy diet can make all the difference in helping females to manage their weight, period problems, and urinary problems.
- Getting regular gynecological checkups can be an excellent way to ensure the well-being of female genitals and accessory organs.
- Kegel exercises can help in curing bladder problems.
Reporting sexual dysfunction is extremely important for individuals to overcome their problems. Practicing safe intercourse, being aware of STDs, working out, planning pregnancy, and following a healthy diet helps in reducing the chances of gynecological problems. Women must avoid harsh soaps and douching to prevent the vulva and vagina from damage. A healthy diet will help females to overcome constipation problems, reduce menstrual pain, and discomfort in the genitals. Hence, even planning a pregnancy is essential to ensure the mental stability of females and reduces the chance of infertility after a certain age. Consulting healthcare professionals helps in planning and exploring suitable options.