After the bitter experience of 2 World wars within 25 years, the world leaders realized the necessity for establishing an organization more powerful than the League of Nations. They held many conferences to discuss the nature and viability of such an organization. Their efforts finally took shape at San Francisco on October 24, 1945, in the form of the United Nations organization.
REASONS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE UNITED NATIONS
1. Disastrous World wars: the 20th century had seen two world wars that left a Legacy of misery than depression in nearly every country. The worse cost billions of dollars. Million lost their live and many people became disabled, homeless, and unemployed. There came a realization among world leaders that another world war might lead to the possibility of destruction of the world and human culture and civilization. Therefore, they started thinking of an International Organisation to maintain peace in the world.
2. Failure of the League of Nations: the League of Nations (1920-1939) was born after the first world war with a promise of peace but it failed to prevent another world war. Many leaders of the world felt the need for an organization that would be more powerful than the League of Nations.
3. Fear of Third World War: the peace treaties signed after the first world war sowed the seeds of bitterness and conflict leading to the Second World War. All the countries feared that the Second World War could be the cause of the Third World War which might lead to the end of the world.
4. Destructive Weapons: the destructive weapons, like atom bombs, were invented and used during the Second World War. These could bring the end of the whole world in no time. They also lead to an armament race for more destructive weapons. Different countries of the world felt that they should set up an organization where they could meet and discuss methods by which they could save themselves and mankind from destruction.
5. Division of the World into two blocs: at the end of the Second World War, the world was divided into two power blocs, one led by the USA and the other by the erstwhile USSR. Both of them had opposite ideologies and, therefore, had no faith in each other. A transparent and impartial Organisation was required so that they would be able to resolve their differences amicably rather than resorting to war.
ORIGIN OF THE UN
Even while the word was continuing, the leaders of Allied Governments like the US President Roosevelt wealth and the British Prime Minister Winston realized the potential danger of wars to humanity. They held many discussions that finally led to the foundation of the United Nations Organization (UNO).
The text for the UN Charter was drafted at the San Francisco conference held in June 1945. The Charter was signed by 50 participating Nations. The United Nations formally came into existence on October 24, 1945, when the Charter was ratified by 29 Nations including the five permanent members of the Security Council. Since then, October 24 is celebrated every year throughout the world as a United Nations day.
THE OBJECTIVES OF THE UN
The objectives for which the united nations was established are enshrined in the permeable to the UN charter.
Main objectives of the UN
The purpose of the United Nations was defined in Article I of the Charter as:
- To maintain international peace and security; to take collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to peace, to suppress acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace.
- To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of people.
- To achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems and encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
- To be a centre of harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.
- Disarm, decolonized, and develop are the three new objectives set by the UN.
Principles of the UN
To fulfil the purposes for which the UNO was established, the member shall act under the following principles:
- To respect the sovereign equality of all the members of the UN.
- . All members should fulfil in good faith and obligations assumed by them.
- The members should settle their International disputes by peaceful means.
- They would refrain from the threats or use of force against any state.
- They should give the UN every assistance in any action it takes.
- The organization should ensure that the states/countries which are not members of the United Nations act under these principles.
- The United Nations shall not intervene in the domestic, that is, internal affairs of any state.
All the organs of the United Nations are based in New York, USA, except the International Court of Justice, which is located at the Hague in the Netherlands.
The UN flag is light blue and it is portrayed in white as its Centre is the UN Emblem, a polar map of the world embraced by twin Olive branches. The flag of the United Nations was adopted on October 20, 1947.
The official languages of the UN are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. A speech made in any of these languages is translated into other five languages but documents are written only in the working languages – English and French.
The expenditure of the United Nations is meant by the contributions made by the UN member countries. This contribution is decided by the General Assembly annually on the recommendation of its committee on contribution.
Membership of the UN is open to all peace-loving conditions who believe in the principles of the UN and accept the obligations of the UN charter full top 50 countries who took part in the San Francisco conference, signed and approved charter became original members of the United Nations. Other countries are admitted by the General Assembly of on the Recommendation of the security council by a two-thirds majority of votes full stop almost all the countries of the world are its members now. By 2011,193 countries became its members. The last country to be admitted to the UN is South Sudan.
On this United Nations Day, we pledge to eliminate violence and follow the path led by the United Nations, the path of peace.