The history of architecture goes back with the history of humanity itself. However, the exact date of the origin of architecture can be dated to Neolithic period, around 10000 BC. By then people began building houses rather than just living in a cave. Architecture possess so much more than just aesthetic appeal, it holds the capacity to reflect the spirit of time. We can understand the evolution of mankind as well as the architecture by observing the building and monuments of different period, from ancient civilization to present.
However, if talk about the earliest civilization found during excavation, dates back to 3000 BC. Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), also known as Sumerian civilization, people there knew about building canals and irrigation. They had technological knowledge and had developed artistry. However the civilization ended in around 330 BC, by Alexander the Great. However, with Mesopotamia being the oldest civilization, China is the oldest living civilization at present. Even at that time with so little technologies available, they have left us with so many mesmerizing architectural monuments, that it becomes quite unbelievable to fathom how advanced their skills were. So we have brought you the proof how ancient civilization was ahead of their time.
Ancient Civilization City Planning
We have found various ruins of different ancient civilization. And, it has helped us understand the techniques that they invented and how advance their technologies were. You might find it very astounding that the people of ancient civilization had amazing sense of planning their town. Moreover, the ruins that we found, has proved that they were way ahead of their time when it came to city planning.
People of Mesopotamia, known as Sumerians, became the first civilization to plan their cities in urbanized and advanced form. They planned the whole city divided the space it into four parts, residential, mixed use, commercial, and civic spaces. Moreover, in the center of the city, resided a high temple complex (Ziggurat), around which the whole city established. Their roadways organized into three parts wide processional streets, public through streets, and private blind alleys. However, they made houses with mud bricks and plaster, with wooden doors. The residential areas appears to be very well and carefully planned out
The most famous landmark of the civilization is Ziggurat (temple space). These worship places of the Sumerian people was a huge pyramidal temple tower. During the excavation Thirty-two ziggurats were found in the area- twenty-eight in Iraq and four at Iran. The Ziggurats had flat tops, unlike any pyramid we see. They used Sun-baked bricks at the core while fired bricks for the outer wall.
2.Indus Valley Civilization
Archeologists excavated the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilization in the eighteenth century. This civilization developed on the bank of river Indus (present day Pakistan and some parts in India). Two of the major cities that archeologists excavated were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Upon studying the ruins found, the civilization dated as long as 3300 BCE. Moreover, as they studied more, the civilization demonstrated advanced application of process oriented modeling techniques with respect to organizing and optimizing its resources. Each and every city had well-planned architecture and efficient sewage and drainage system.
The engineering skill of the people of Indus Valley Civilization proved that they were ahead of their time. The streets appear in perfect grid pattern, where the lanes intersected each other at ninety-degree. Similar planning can be seen of present day New York. Moreover, Indus Valley became the first civilization that achieved great accuracy in measuring length, mass, and time. They had proper sewage and drainage system that went along the streets and every home. A high fired brick wall surrounded the town and light stand can be seen on regular interval on the streets, stating the concept of light had been developed.
People of the Egypt civilization focused more on building monuments and pyramids than town planning. However, they planned their town on a raised platform of the banks of the river Nile. They did so to prevent the floods to destroy the town and built big walls made of fired mud bricks, that had one or two entrances. The houses shared the boundaries with one another and stood on the edge of the narrow streets. Also, they built dams canals and dug wells to store water. They used post and lintel method of construction for building monumental buildings. They used sunbaked mud bricks and stones for the construction but archeologists have found considerable amount of granite and sandstone too.
Ancient Civilization Monuments
Today, humans have evolved and so has there technology. Today, we see so many fancy and mesmerizing buildings that we have built with the latest of technologies. But, when you see monuments which dates back to thousands of years ago, the first thing that comes in our mind is, how did they do it? With so minimum technology, how did they build something so big and beautiful that it still stand intact! Well, let us look at some of the extraordinary monuments, built by the ancient civilization.
4.The Great Wall of China
Visible even from the space, the Great Wall of China began as early as 7 BC. Moreover, China is the oldest living civilization in the history. This twenty-one thousand kilometer long wall, took over hundred century to complete. Moreover, rulers from different dynasties continued the work on it to protect the border from intrusion. This two-thousand years-old wall, made up of stone, bricks and woods, still stand intact. Millions of prisoners were forced to work in the making of it and thousands of lives were lost. As we know the technology was not that advance at the time so people did all of the work. Moreover, every year it attracts more than thousand of tourists, who leave awestruck with the history of it.
5.The Pyramids of Egypt
Nothing in the field of architecture fascinates more than Pyramids of Egypt. No architectural building of any of the ancient civilization appears so mysterious and astonishing. Egypt has around one-thirty-eight pyramids in total and the tallest and the biggest of them all is The Pyramid of Khufu or as we all know it by Pyramid of Giza. It stands over 480 feet tall and is entirely made of rocks which weighs around six million tons! And all of these were man-made, total physical labor! With all of this, it took over twenty three years and twenty thousand workers to build it. It comes with no surprise that we count the Pyramid of Giza amongst the seven wonders of the world!
6.The Treasury of Petra in Jordon
Al Khazneh, popularly known as the Treasury in the ancient city of Petra in Jordon became one of the new seven wonders of the world in 2007. The rock façade and temples, built by carving the rose-red sandstone rock in around first century AD as a crypt. However, so many myths and legends revolve around it, but, architectural beauty of it remains indisputable. Apart from the fact that people have carved it out from a single piece of rock, without the modern machinery, the real beauty lies in the intricate detail work that has, for the most part, remained intact.
However, through mere observance of these remains of the ancient civilization, we can recall how much we have evolved as humans. What we have made possible with the help of new technologies and machineries, people from all over the world, in ancient times, have already done that! That too without these modern technologies and with just man power! Isn’t it just enough to prove that these ancient civilization was ahead of their time!