Since the time that humans have realized what upheaval they created and disrupted the balance of the planet. People all around the globe have taken vehement steps to improve the conditions of the planet. And every time people have come together to bring about change unanimously it has worked wonders. Creating a huge impact, on not just the environment but also the other silent audiences. However, the act of ignorance is coming forward to become a part of the ecological movements.
Endangered Species Act
According to the US Fish and Wildlife Services, The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 is a key legislation for both domestic and international conservation. It aims to conserve and protect endangered species and their habitats. By providing States with financial assistance, incentives to develop and maintain conservation programs. The Act also meets many of the United States’ international responsibilities to treaties and conventions. Such as the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the Western Hemisphere Convention. The multinational species conservation acts function as amendments to the ESA. And, grant the division to provide funding for projects that aim to conserve and protect these species.
Earth Day is celebrated on April 22, since1970. Its huge participation made the event a success. This made the government listen and act upon the pressing issues. The endangered species act was passed to save the wildlife who were on the brink of extinction.
The Chipko movement was an initiative by the locals of the villages of Chamoli district Uttarakhand. This was first observed in April 1973. This movement saw the act of hugging the trees to stop officials from cutting them down. This practice was followed by people all over, turning it into a nationwide phenomenon. Who knew this would become exemplary and have a crucial role in the upcoming environmental movements all across the globe. The Chipko Andolan is a movement that practiced the methods of Satyagraha. Here, both male and female activists from Uttarakhand played vital roles. Some were Gaura Devi, Suraksha Devi, Sudesha Devi, Bachni Devi, and Chandi Prasad Bhatt.
As a result, not only was it an initiative to stop deforestation by peaceful means but is also viewed as an ecofeminism movement. Because of the crucial role played by women in protecting their indigenous environments. This was an example that the resilience and efforts of even a few can have such a huge impact.
The Environment and Rio Earth Summit
The Earth Summit was a UN event that was majorly conducted in response to the member states who wanted to cooperate and bring about changes pertaining to the environment. The main topics up for discussion at the summit were finding alternative sources of energy to replace fossil fuels, water supply, and usage, reduction of carbon dioxide by encouraging the use of public transportation.
The Earth Summit resulted in the following documents:
Earth Summit basically paved the way for a lot of reforms and further discussions making more and more nations come up and act together for a unanimous ultimate goal to preserve the planet and curb the harmful practices of mankind and finding alternative ways by tackling the various problems individually.
One of the major achievements of this was an agreement by the member parties which led to the climate change convention and paved the way for the Kyoto and Paris protocol.
This international treaty was adopted in Kyoto, Japan on December 11, 1997. This came into full effect in February 2005. The main motive of this protocol was for the countries who were a part of this to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Based upon scientific research the main reason for worldwide global warming was the incessantly increasing carbon dioxide emissions due to human activities.
The developed countries by logic were responsible for the emissions that had already disrupted the environment. Hence the responsibility to clean up the mess was more severe on their shoulders. Later amendments targets set for the developing as well as developed nations. And not just put the burden on one. Also, to decide steps for those countries that are not a part of the agreement. Moreover, the impacts have been significant and the reductions have been visible. Hence, for long-lasting effects of this, more such steps are necessary.
The Montreal Protocol, finalized in 1987, is a global agreement to protect the stratospheric ozone layer. However, this is possible to achieve by phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. An international treaty to protect the depleting ozone layer. Also, more nations come to participate in it, the ozone layer will recover to the state that it was in 1980, by the year 2050. Various phase-out plans were to come into effect at certain points in time. Focusing on each of the greenhouse gases individually to have maximum effect.
Scientists have witnessed a detectable reduction in greenhouse gases. Even leveling out of such gases. Still, there are some nations that have gone under noncompliance. They are having a global impact on the ozone layer by releasing some of the greenhouse gases and not monitoring the emission levels. With 25 years of coming into effect, the world has phased out about 98% of the ozone-depleting substances!